Core components of lubricating oils: Exploring the characteristics and classification of base oils

source: author:inzoc time:2023-08-17 17:47:46 点击:585

The base oils of lubricating oils are the main components in lubricating oil products, which provide functions such as lubrication, cooling, sealing and friction reduction.

Characteristics of base oil

Physical characteristics





The performance of lubricating oil is largely determined by the quality and characteristics of the base oil. Base oils can be divided into different types and classifications based on their source, manufacturing process and chemical properties.

➣ Mineral oil (≈95%)*

Crude oil derivatives. The characteristics depend on the quality of the crude oil and the control of the refining process.



▲ Mineral oil properties

➣ synthetic oil (≈4.8%)*

Synthetic liquids made of different compounds, like liquid plastics. It has a precise molecular structure to provide higher performance at a variety of temperatures and operating conditions. Common synthetic base oils include polyalphaolefin (PAO), esters, and polypropylene ethers (PAG).


Common synthetic base oil characteristics





➣ Vegetable oil (≈0.2%)*

Derived from vegetable oil, special refining process, depending on oil plant seed type. Low environmental impact and biodegradability.

Common application

● Hydraulic system

● Gear oil

● Total loss system (especially chainsaw or motorcycle chain)

● Automobile lubricating oil

● Popular in Europe because of strict environmental requirements

Common application

● Based on canola or sunflower oil, hydrogenation to form natural ester

● Add additive combinations to enhance properties, such as pour point and viscosity

● High Viscosity index (VI)

Low temperature performance is not good (pour point)

● Provides good wear protection, but without high viscosity (above 32cSt)

These different types of base oils have different characteristics and applicability. According to the actual application requirements, the appropriate base oil type can be selected to achieve the best performance.

In order to ensure the performance of lubricating oil, modern technology has also introduced online oil monitoring. By monitoring the physical and chemical properties of lubricating oil in real time, the online oil monitoring system can help detect abnormal conditions in lubricating oil, warn of possible mechanical problems in advance, optimize maintenance plans, and extend the service life of equipment. By obtaining the status information of lubricating oil in a timely manner, enterprises can more effectively manage their machinery and equipment, improve production efficiency and equipment reliability.

Therefore, the base oil type and characteristics of lubricating oil, as well as modern on-line oil monitoring technology, together affect the operation and maintenance of industrial equipment. Selecting the right base oil and using advanced monitoring technology are of great significance to the reliability and efficiency of the equipment.

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